Genetics Info & Tutorial: Mutations
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But what happens if a gene is damaged? This is called a mutation. Mutations can happen in several different ways, such as improper copying of DNA, or radiation damaging the DNA.

In this example, the gene for Tyrosinase has been changed by a mutation, and now it no longer makes Tyrosinase. The change in the code (shown by the arrow) has made it so that now the middle amino acid in the chain is not the one needed to make Tyrosinase.

Since Tyrosinase is needed to create melanin, the cell that has this gene is no longer able to create melanin. If this type of mutation happens--or is present--in a sperm or egg cell, the resulting offspring will be built out of cells that all have the same “defective” copy of this gene.

Get more details with the book Genetics For Herpers!
It's 84 pages of illustrated genetics fun!
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